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Calibration of DEM material parameters to simulate stress-strain behavior of unsaturated soils during uniaxial compression

1. Introduction

Soil compaction of cultivated soils is considered one of the main challenges in soil management. External mechanical stress on soils due to wheeling or tillage causes soil deformation and reduction of the pore space, which affects water and solute transport, aeration, nutrient availability and crop productivity ([Soane and Van Ouwerkerk, 1995], [Hamza and Anderson, 2005], [Alaoui et al., 2011], [Keller et al., 2013]).


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